What are the 3Rs?
Although animal use in vaccine research and testing cannot always be avoided, much can be done in terms of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement:
- Replacement aims to use alternative animal models, e.g. cell-culture models or physico-chemical methods.
- Reduction aims at reducing numbers of animals without violating the relevance of the animal model
- Refinement refers to reducing pain and distress in animal studies and/or improving animal welfare such as by improving housing conditions.
3R research at Intravacc
At Intravacc we recognize the need for reducing the number of animals used in vaccine development as well as improving their welfare.